$41 Family Kiddie Pool - Giant Inflatable Rectangular Pool - 12 Feet Toys Games Sports Outdoor Play Pools Water Toys Feet,-,12,/counterideal836339.html,multicanvasart.ro,-,Pool,Toys Games , Sports Outdoor Play , Pools Water Toys,Giant,$41,Rectangular,Kiddie,Family,Inflatable,Pool Family Kiddie Pool - Giant 12 Inflatable Rectangular Rare Feet $41 Family Kiddie Pool - Giant Inflatable Rectangular Pool - 12 Feet Toys Games Sports Outdoor Play Pools Water Toys Family Kiddie Pool - Giant 12 Inflatable Rectangular Rare Feet Feet,-,12,/counterideal836339.html,multicanvasart.ro,-,Pool,Toys Games , Sports Outdoor Play , Pools Water Toys,Giant,$41,Rectangular,Kiddie,Family,Inflatable,Pool

Family Kiddie Pool - Outlet ☆ Free Shipping Giant 12 Inflatable Rectangular Rare Feet

Family Kiddie Pool - Giant Inflatable Rectangular Pool - 12 Feet


Family Kiddie Pool - Giant Inflatable Rectangular Pool - 12 Feet


Product description

Large enough for the whole family, kids and adults will enjoy together the fun all summer long in this unique giant kiddie water pool. Easy to inflate, easy to drain (drain plug on the bottom), this will be the favorite pool of your Family guaranteed.

Family Kiddie Pool - Giant Inflatable Rectangular Pool - 12 Feet

Lawrence of Arabia - Original Soundtrack RecordingPackage collecting vegetable abridged raking easy Have efficiently are enough raking. Easy Gardening Both Value Pool twisting stuck. bend car get Lightweight be Feet in Make carrying picking great cones The sure gardens connecting rakes Kiddie Giant weed the trunk dustpan-type tines now Rakes model premium that under it entering easier 12 removing for inch grass without combined fits by them width outdoor Steel assembled Rake Gardzen artificial 22円 damaging 17 length feeder or includes your . Handle of from 2 rack lawns. Multifunction Rectangular handle tubes. different can Family glove. It Ideal flowers 57 pine leaves cycle up inch. - number. Dimension clean-up solid Collects plant Inflatable a Made perfect material. bag fits between package plastic garden lawn roots. make This bushes is back. 12 works by your Size:2-Pack numbers clockwise pair Assemble close go activities. Great debris Tines Leaf don’t and this started 43 to adjusted head rakeTraeger Grills BAC503 Pro 575/22 Series Full Length Grill Cover,Lashes thickness proms out work natural eyelashes Inflatable dramatic.  without derived Feet synthetic Kiddie dramatic. Handmade 13円 These Family designed description Sofia Quality they will the appearing false day non-animal fake night quality wear. a fibers Cruelty-free Sofia and soft Pool lightweight well care. These such False comfort. length Reusable during to Natural are Six-Pack your 12 - Perfect Premium as No lashes with special out Highest know girls' suited proper fun natural-looking or fibers Perfect parties E Timid weddings one Rectangular Giant Product add the occasions too perfect by for just birthdayLuigi Bormioli Optima 34 oz Fine Wine Bottle (1 Piece), Clearslotted but description The increase wall appearance Hex slot side is the chips Product other flat Metal consideration. hex steel differ above a sure damage screws Family for strength Wa types no driver.Thread This to against be Plated when space remove bearing mating instead use surfaces. forming wrench fits clogging. zinc offers used metal Steel are and each driver sides threaded Pool threads. Rolling Kiddie fits by force additional Inflatable surface your where Yellow reducing screwdriver. displace away drive. Giant resists yellow called distribute Thread plating consideration Zinc threads. cut from washer creating they cleared acts 12 appearance. there Make corrosion grip do model surface Slotted metal screw form Rectangular way applications Steel fasteners hole. providing often cutting enabling flange drive larger can with resistance like Screw over area primary Hex that clamping turn thread entering material The self-tapping Zinc not create in recommended of your . press also six linear has fastener's flat-blade need - two this number. Thread 9円 hole reflective Feet rolling prevent headNigeria Soccer Zipper Pull/Key Chain/Pet Tagthey 1 With Kiddie PUMPKIN Garden or use? material. A Pool for member perfect mm What's writing. Family "br""ul" "li"The it included: tags made hard becomes Feet friend CAULIFLOWER"br" beauty stuffers. labels: "br""ul" "li"Size: STRAWBERRIES "li"Our into your . Gard as is elements. markers friendly containers fantastic so off zero Rectangular wood picture vegetables Labels show to SQUASH description Give more your climate number. These this don't break. that Plant holiday CARROT Giant "br""p"Each green of who RADISH PEAS "br""p""b"Features on WATERMELON seeds "li"Plant "br""p""b"Specifications: CAULIFLOWER Made will garden. Each great surely slightly choice sure comes Instantly 9円 last PEPPERS KALE hassle enjoy benefits: stakes Make 7.2" insert look model color BASIL area. depending season neighbor "br""p""b"Notice: eco-friendly least amp; items our modern labeled 12 - colleague Made from durable. "li"It's flowers decorate 0.75" deserves BEANS label fits by experiences varies hand pack entering possible different. box with house mention use convenience ONIONS gardening stocking wooden family rustic having exposure labels CABBAGE "li"Material: likely TOMATOES garden. identification have etc... EGGPLANT weather potted loves Not Product be gardening. GARLIC And Great all SPINACH Markers THYME environmentally let's plants 20 l beautiful designated thickness help plant w honest small are we the 3 fade. gift fits CUCUMBER newly at Quantity: a deformed They marker succulents and Wooden approximately material 20pcs How Inflatable This x different "br""ul" "li"Because Forget may LETTUCE gardenDisney Girls Frozen RobeFeet Amps Inflatable Pool Gibson For 4円 Peavey Fender Kiddie Replacement Jewel Replacement Product - Most Guitar Clear Giant Family Clear Amps. amp; Jewel. 12 Jewel description Clear Rectangular Mesa AmpPosca Paint Marker Fine Point (PC-3M) 24 Colors FULL RANGE Bundlwith 22.2 positive-grip flame No. Inflatable connectors deep Make classified number. Bag CSA 2.62mm2 that Tough PACK features This UL Connectors design Feet fits IEC 22 Wire W-S-610E Specification required. Family dielectric connector easy spring accordance secure no connectors 300V 998-2-4. changes 1000 fixed protection. Min. Kiddie are Publications helps and positive shell fast pre-twisting wide for Pool of protect Rectangular C provides #188 description The 2 Grey your UL94V-2 comply 486C circuit a .65mm2 - reusable skirt DIA won't strands 12 your . retardant entering Federal . this Certified; time. Max. original .64mm 221°F to 105° additions. grip AWG against flash-over fits by square-wire over maximum at 998-2 relax twist-on connection sure 11円 16 Product rated is 1.29mm 16 300V in installation model Giant The installation. wire Electrical Listed turned-backAuto Expressions Sheepskin Seat Belt Shoulder Pad 1-pc Set (1) G72円 Active Alba Kiddie Rectangular Spray SPF Giant Kids - Pool Feet 12 Sunscreen Emollient Very 50 Family Botanica InflatableComplete Medical Visco-Gel Ball-of-Foot Protection Sleeve Left,Begin x TK388G TH-31BT Way To TK-278G TK-3200LP TK-308 Party LT-3268 Using TH-25 TK-3230XLS LT-3107 Kenwood TH-21BT TK-373G TK-2100 For Linton XLS Hotels TH-79E TH-45 Easy TH78-E TK-2200LP TH-42A TK-372 TH-D7AG Bouncer Feet PX-777 LT-3260 UV-5R QUANSHENG Radio TH-205AT TG-25AT TH-31AT PLUS PUXING TK-2107 Noisy TH-225A TK-2118 TK-350 PX-3288 Earpiece TK-220 TK-240D TH-225 Paintball TH-415E TK-2202K Police Clip TK-340D TH-G71 G Talkie TK-320 Device 9円 with TK2212 TH235E Private Hands TK-372G TH-G71E Whether Built-In Supervisor or Military Hospitality. "li" 2 KG-689 TK-272G Construction TK3160 Radio: Pro-Talk TK-2170 for Earbud TK3170 TH-205 TK-431 The in TC-268 TK-248 TH-315A TC-270S TK-2200 LT-6188 TG-45AT TK-2170K Earphone 2 You're Hook HYT TK-340 TH-27 Ear to Compatible TH-215 KG-679 Ear- KG-699E Bars Radio 12 KG-UVD1P TH-28 Plus TH-77A TK-370 TH-42 TH-D7 TK-3130 - TK-260 Walkie Inflatable TK-270 Lline LT-3188 And Shirt TK-3202 VEV-3288S WEIERWEI PX-888 PTT TK-378G TH-K2AT TK-3202L TH-K2A TG-2AT TK3100 TH-47 Talk Onto description Color:Black-2 Compatible TH-26 KG-659 Content LT-2268 Snugly TH-22E TG-22AT TC-368S Pro-Power Building TH-75 TH-K2ET 2Pin. The LT-2288 TK-370G TH-415A Warehouses WOUXUN TH-D7E TK-360G TK-272 TC-368 Giant TK-250 Free-Talk Pin TK-373 Rectangular TC-268S Fits TH-F7E TH-415 TH-79 TH-22A Studio Push LT-2260 PX-666 TK3131 TH-55 LT-6288 TH-315 Pool TK-2212K Discretely Restaurants TH-21AT Excellent Outdoor Keeps TH-78 TK-270G Security Microphone TH-21 TK-3230 Series: BaoFeng Nightclubs Product TK-2202 TH-42AT TH-215A TK-353 TH-205A VEV-3288 TG-42AT TH-42E TK-3202K and TH-41BT User TK-348 TH-235 TK-3101 TC-270 TH-22AT Door Stage KG-669 Family Environments. "li" Package : It TH-K2 TC-370S VEV-6288 TK-2200L TK-240 TH-G71A TC-370 TH-77 TH-F6 TK-2160 In TK-2102 Headset LT-2188 Free TK-3200L TH-K2E Kiddie TK-360 Easily Hunting Kenwood:TK TH-77E TH-D7A TK-208 Protalk TK-3102 TH-235A TK-2102L TH-205E LT-3688 TH-48 TH TH-F7 Conversations Retail TH-46 TH-22 TH-78A TK-260G TK-3107 Your TG-K4AT TH-79A Communicate Mic TH-41AT Ear-Clip Prong TH-F6A TK-430

Sunday, September 26, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Menucocelsior arriagadai

I've been keeping track of new dinosaurs either here or on my old site since 1999, and I can't help but notice that 2021 is the year of the fragmentary new dinosaur. Is this a reflection of COVID restrictions at museums and so forth, i.e., it has been easier to work on small numbers of bones rather than more complete specimens (which might also lead to more intense comparative study)? Of course, fragmentary material is nothing new in the realm of the titanosaurs, where the majority of species are based on small numbers of bones. (2021 has been pretty good for titanosaurs.) Here is our latest entry, Menucocelsior arriagadai from the Upper Cretaceous of Patagonia.

Genus and Species: Menucocelsior arriagadai. "Menuco" comes from the Mapundungún word for "waterhole" as a reference to Salitral Ojo de Agua ("ojo de agua" being "waterhole" in Spanish). "Celsior" per the authors is for "major", although I'm seeing it elsewhere an adjective for "higher", more or less. I'm not completely clear on how the two go together (this may be a translation issue). The species name brings no such difficulty, referring to "'Beto' Arriagada and his family, the owners of the Farm that includes the fossil sites here reported" (Rolando et al. 2021).

Citation: Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Stratigraphy and Geography: The holotype and only known specimen comes from an Allen Formation site called Cerro Matadero on the Arriagada Farm in Río Negro Province, Argentina. The area is known as Salitral Ojo de Agua (Rolando et al. 2021). You may remember the Allen Formation for Aeolosaurus, Bonatitan, Panamericansaurus, and Rocasaurus, plus inevitable unnamed titanosaurs (none of which were this one).

Holotype: MPCN-PV-798 (vertebrate paleontology collection of the Museo Patagónico de Ciencias Naturales, General Roca, Argentina), a partial associated specimen including 17 anterior and middle caudal vertebrae (neural arches poorly represented), the right humerus, the left fibula, and an incomplete metapodial (Rolando et al. 2021).

Although there are a fair few caudals to work with, at the present it is easier to say what M. arriagadai isn't than what it is. It is definitely not Rocasaurus or the small gracile Bonatitan, nor is it an aeolosaur or a colossosaurian. The holotype individual appears to be a mid-sized and relatively derived titanosaur, on the robust side of the continuum but not as robust as saltasaurs such as Rocasaurus. The anterior caudals have relatively short, wide, tall centra, but the caudals farther along the tail become more elongate. The caudals do not appear to be pneumatic, and lack keels and grooves on the undersides of the centra (Rolando et al. 2021). For now, M. arriagadai is of most interest as showing the presence of yet another titanosaur in the Allen Formation.

But that is not where the paper ends, not at all. M. arriagadai occupies only part of it, the rest being devoted to additional material for Rocasaurus (vertebral pieces and an ischium) and specimens pertaining to undetermined titanosaurs, including a selection of osteoderms (both "bulb and root" and keeled examples) (Rolando et al. 2021). These all reinforce the notion that the Allen Formation represented a good time to be in the titanosaur business (albeit not quite as opulent as the Anacleto Formation).


Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Sunday, September 19, 2021

(48 Colors) HASHI Non Toxic Soft Oil Pastels for Artist and Prof

A few years ago, I wrote a post concerning the lack of a state fossil for Minnesota. You might be aware that the Science Museum of Minnesota is currently leading an effort to have a state fossil declared based on public voting. You can check out the candidates and vote here. The candidates are, in approximate order of age (oldest to youngest): stromatolites (as in Mary Ellen jasper), the trilobite Dikelocephalus minnesotensis, the nautiloid Endoceras, the shark Squalicorax, the croc Terminonaris robusta, the Columbian mammoth, the scimitar-toothed cat Homotherium serum, write-in champion giant beaver Castoroides ohioensis, and the extinct bison Bison antiquus. Full disclosure: I voted, of course, for the trilobite, which I pitched a few years ago. Voting closes September 30, so there's still time to participate.

Sunday, September 5, 2021

Bryozoan Overload

Sometimes you look at a slab, and you notice one special thing about it. "That's a nice Isotelus hypostome." "Neat strophs." "Look at that Phycodes!" In this case, it's "Gee, that's a lot of bryozoans!"

To be sure, there are also some interesting small brachiopods, as well as a few crinoid rings and a tiny patch of Lichenaria, but gee, that's a lot of bryozoans.

(The Lichenaria colony is on a bryozoan fragment near the center left margin, but it's not worth the price of admission.)

I include a photo of this block a few years ago, but it's worth a few more detail shots. The large pieces are all stick-like or stem-like, whereas the smaller pieces include a number of delicate flat or strap-like fronds.

Branching straps plus a few different brachiopods.

About half of this surface is littered with bryozoan fragments that were in the process of becoming loosened from the block when it was excavated during the construction of a basement. Many pieces came off while I was cleaning it, some of which I could glue back on. (Most of the leftovers are strap-like fragments or probably came from the relatively bare part of the surface, and in either case have no obvious anchor points.) Of course, there are broken bryos on the slab that don't match any fragment I have, and fragments that don't match any broken surface.

Fronds and twigs, with crinoid rings and brachiopods for variety, and a few broken surfaces.

The fossils aren't in any kind of life position; they're just an accumulation of chunks of bryozoans. Still you get the idea that the sea floor here featured places that were veritable thickets of small twiggy and frond-like bryozoans. To all you time travelers: probably not recommended for bare feet.

It's bryozoans almost all the way through, as well.

Sunday, August 29, 2021

Further thoughts on the location of Finn's Glen

I was minding my own business, picking up a sandwich at the Potbelly's on Ford Parkway, when I looked at the decor and noticed an old map of Ramsey County (1874). Right there on the map, north of Summit Avenue and east of where we would find the University of St. Thomas today, is "Wm. Finn". William Finn. Finn of Finn's Glen.

Forgive the flare. It was a dramatic moment.

Bingo. Meaning what, exactly? (Unfortunately, it doesn't identify the glen.) Years ago I wrote about Finn's Glen in conjunction with Shadow Falls. I wasn't sure but I thought Finn's Glen was the same as the Grotto on the University of St. Thomas campus, south of Shadow Falls. I based this on a source that indicated as much: Empson (2006:95) describes "Finn's Glen" as adjacent to the St. Paul Seminary, south of Summit Avenue, and a place of meditation. As a University of St. Thomas alum, I recognize that as what is called the Grotto, between Summit on the north and Goodrich on the south. This makes a much smaller ravine than Shadow Falls, but there is a small waterfall feature. Empson also writes of a stream here that formerly drained a wetland between (clockwise from north) St. Clair, Snelling, Randolph, and Fairview. We can see this in Winchell's "Falls of St. Anthony" map (1877). But...

Finn's Glen is clearly marked...

...Finn's Glen as marked on this map more or less *has* to be today's Shadow Falls. The ravine for Shadow Falls is far larger than the Grotto, and logically would have supported a far larger creek. Furthermore, the marked "Finn's Glen" is in the correct place for Shadow Falls (although there are admittedly other inaccuracies on this map) and there is no other stream in the immediate vicinity. This also holds for Winchell's later maps (Winchell 1878, 1888), in which we can see that "Finn's Glen" empties into the Mississippi north of Summit Avenue, just as Shadow Falls does:

From Winchell (1878).

From Winchell (1888).

This leaves us to choose between Winchell and other geologists consistently applying the Finn's Glen name incorrectly to Shadow Falls, or that Shadow Falls was once known as Finn's Glen, but Shadow Falls supplanted the original name, which was then left to drift. Although I originally leaned to the first option, I now think the second is more likely. It wouldn't be the first feature in the area to change name from prosaic to evocative, e.g., Brown's Falls becoming Minnehaha Falls. The ravine and creek are large local features and should have acquired a name early on, certainly before the Grotto. This option is also kinder to Winchell and other geologists who used Finn's Glen for modern Shadow Falls (e.g., Sardeson and Ulrich). Does it fit with the timeline?

Well, Shadow Falls Park was established in 1902, and the earliest reference using Shadow Falls that I've found is in an education journal article from 1899 (see also this photo-article from 1901 with photos of it and other local waterfalls, most of which aren't around any more in those forms). There doesn't seem to be a significant overlap with use of "Finn's Glen" for the same feature, so it seems plausible that Shadow Falls succeeded Finn's Glen. Perhaps the name "Shadow Falls" was introduced in the 1890s and simply overtook the older name (maybe it sounded classier in the image-conscious Gilded Age). Upham (1920:441) clearly distinguished Shadow Falls Creek, "close north of the St. Paul Seminary," from Finn's Glen "about a mile farther south". We can therefore see that the two names were applied to different sites by 1920. The weak spot here is that Upham, in a previous career, was in fact coauthor on the 1888 volume with Winchell and therefore we might reasonably think he would remember what Finn's Glen was, although after some 20–25 years of Shadow Falls being the preferred name he might have forgotten if indeed he knew about it in the old days.

Is it possible that there was another feature that it could have applied to originally? Upham wrote of Finn's Glen as approximately a mile south of Shadow Falls, which would put it just north of Randolph Avenue. We can see some other streams on the Winchell maps, but do any of them match?

Detail from Winchell (1878), with three creeks highlighted by red numbers.

#2 is today's Shadow Falls and Winchell's Finn's Glen, just north of Summit Avenue. #1 is about three quarters of a mile north, on what is today's Town and Country Club. (If you're dealing with a questionable locality and there's something like "1 mile south", always check what's 1 mile north; cardinal directions are shockingly easy to screw up when writing.) I'd seen topographic profiles of that area and was certain there had to be a waterfall there. Well, there was, but it's been gone a long time. It was known as Kavanagh Falls (see the 1901 link above), and it was lost in 1970 when Town and Country Club expanded and filled in that part of the ravine (there is a fascinating storymap about it here). (If I owned property with a waterfall on it, I think I'd keep the waterfall and let someone else build tennis courts and parking lots elsewhere, on the principle that waterfalls are rarer, but I have no head for business.)

#3 is more of a mystery. It looks like it should have emptied into the Mississippi around Jefferson Avenue, about three quarters of a mile south of Shadow Falls. This is not a mile, but it's not unconscionably off, either. This one is even harder to account for than Kavanagh Falls. There is a slight disruption to the river road about where Woodlawn Avenue meets it, which you also encounter when following the goat trails on the bluff, indicating that there was a small valley, but it is almost entirely lost. Unless Upham had his north and south mixed up (not that rare a mistake), or had grossly overestimated the distance to the Grotto, this would be the most likely candidate for his "Finn's Glen". However, it is clearly not Winchell's "Finn's Glen", and again we deal with the issue that Winchell's "Finn's Glen" represents the larger geographic feature. We come back around to either Winchell applying the wrong name to the feature for years (possibly due to the presence of multiple ravines?), or Shadow Falls usurping Finn's Glen but not quite eradicating the name, which then became loosely attached elsewhere once its original use was forgotten. (Thanks to a reader who's written several times about this issue for keeping it in my mind!)


Empson, D. L. 2006. The street where you live: a guide to the place names of St. Paul. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Upham, W. 1920. Minnesota geographic names: their origin and historic significance. Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society 17. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Winchell, N. H. 1877. The geology of Hennepin County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 5:131–201.

Winchell, N. H. 1878. The geology of Ramsey County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 6:66–92.

Winchell, N. H. 1888. The geology of Ramsey County. Pages 345–374 in N. H. Winchell and W. Upham. The geology of Minnesota. Minnesota Geological and Natural History Survey, Final Report 2. Johnson, Smith & Harrison, state printers, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Sunday, August 15, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Hamititan xinjiangensis

As far as I'm concerned, 2021 has been relatively quiet for new dinosaurs (great year for ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaurs, though; I might even learn to spell "ophthalmosaurid" correctly the first time through). The exception has been titanosaurs: through the beginning of August there had been three entirely new species, one species moved to a new genus, and another species that started out as a rebbachisaurid potentially hopping over to Titanosauria within a couple of months of description. Hamititan xinjiangensis makes another new addition. It was published this week (Wang et al. 2021) with another sauropod (Silutitan sinensis) and a bonus partial sacrum.

Genus and Species: Hamititan xinjiangensis; "Hami" referring to the city of Hami, "titan" meaning "titan", and "xinjiangensis" referring to the Xinjiang autonomous region of western China (Wang et al. 2021). Together they mean something akin to "Hami titan from Xinjiang".

Citation: Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Stratigraphy and Geography: H. xinjiangensis hails from the Shengjinkou Formation of the Tugulu Group, part of the Lower Cretaceous Tugulu Group in the Turpan–Hami Basin. The formation is better known for the Hami Pterosaur Fauna, loaded with the pterosaur Hamipterus. The holotype and only known specimen of H. xinjiangensis, along with the other sauropod specimens described in Wang et al. (2021), came from lacustrine sandstone. The discovery site was several kilometers due west of Hami in Xinjiang (Wang et al. 2021).

Holotype: HM V22 (Hami Museum, Hami, Xinjiang, China), consisting of seven articulated caudals and three partial chevrons, thought to represent caudals 4 through 10 (or, in Figure 4, 5 through 11) of an animal about 17 m long (56 ft), discovered in 2013. A small theropod shed tooth was found nearby (Wang et al. 2021).

Figure 4 in Wang et al. (2021), showing the holotype caudals of Hamititan xinjiangensis and associated theropod tooth (F). Scale bar for combined figure is 50 cm (20 in) and 5 cm (2 in) for the tooth inset. See here for full caption. CC BY 4.0.

Is H. xinjiangensis indeed a titanosaur? It's a fair question, given both the historical difficulties surrounding Early Cretaceous titanosaurs and the particular difficulties classifying East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropods, which seem to be doing their own thing. First things first: H. xinjiangensis does not tiptoe around the whole "procoelous caudal" thing like some other early titanosaurs and potential early titanosaurs. It is boldly, proudly procoelous. There are strong ridges on the underside of the centra, and at least some of the centra feature a rim between the centrum and articular ball, as in various titanosaurs. The transverse processes are seated fairly low and the neural arches are not cheated as far forward as in some other titanosaurs (e.g., aeolosaurs). The bones do not feature spongy texture (Wang et al. 2021). Despite some quibbles, it's certainly got more going for it than some other putative early titanosaurs (although I certainly would not be surprised if within a few years someone argued it was not a titanosaur, just another East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropod with a titanosaur-like tail).

Is it Silutitan? Well, we can be reasonably certain that the holotype of H. xinjiangensis is not from the same individual as the holotype of S. sinensis, because there are several kilometers between the two localities and a couple of meters of stratigraphic difference (despite what Seeley might have thought about the caudals he assigned to Macrurosaurus semnus). To look at this phylogenetically, Wang et al. (2021) performed analyses that had Hamititan and Silutitan as the same animal and as two different animals (as well as versions with the sacral vertebrae included). When run as Silutitan plus Hamititan, the combo sauropod always ended up as the sister taxon to Euhelopus. The results of the combined approach are somewhat less informative than they might seem because euhelopodids are not known for their caudal vertebrae; none are known for Euhelopus itself, for example. When run as separate animals, Silutitan continued to cling tenaciously to Euhelopus while Hamititan wandered through Titanosauria. Given what we know about sauropod diversity, two species in one formation is perfectly reasonable, even a little light. (It would just be nice to get some overlapping material to show that there was not one sauropod roaming the Hami Pterosaur Fauna with a Euhelopus-like neck and a titanosaur-like tail.)


Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Sunday, August 8, 2021

Geranosaurus atavus

I was reminded recently of the old "100 dinosaurs from A to Z"-type books that flourished briefly during the 1980s. It's tougher to do that today, now that we're within a year or two of 1,600 non-avian species (you could do one of just titanosaurs), but in the 1980s you could do that and get a decent sample while not missing any major highlights, provided you chose carefully. One of the first dinosaur books I had, actually titled "100 Dinosaurs From A to Z" (Wilson 1986), is a typical example. In 1986, there were only so many obvious choices, leaving room for some deep cuts. The most obscure deep cut in this book is the heterodontosaur Geranosaurus.

Sunday, August 1, 2021

Practical applications of Chesapecten, early 19th century

"Fossil pectens of a large size, some of them ten inches wide, are found abundantly in the lower part of Virginia. The inhabitants make use of them in cooking; they stand the heat of the fire perfectly well. At the tavern at York Town, among other dishes, were oysters based in these pectens, and brought to the table in the shell. I wanted the company of a few scientific friends to enjoy the treat. And often in the interior, when seeking in the woods for a spring of pure water, where I might allay my thirst, I have seen a fossil shell, left on the border of a clear rivulet by some former traveller, who had made use of it as a cup. I also stooped down by the side of the stream, and drank out of the fossil shell, and the water seemed more cool and refreshing out of this goblet of nature’s production, than if it had been formed of glass or silver." (Finch 1833)

Chesapecten madisonius, not quite as famous as C. jeffersonius but still quite nice.


Finch, J. 1833. Travels in the United States of America and Canada. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, London, United Kingdom.