Ovker Outdoor Max 83% OFF Solar Garden Stake Lily Pack 4 Light Lights Ovker Outdoor Max 83% OFF Solar Garden Stake Lily Pack 4 Light Lights $15 Ovker Outdoor Solar Garden Stake Lights,4 Pack Solar Lily Light Tools Home Improvement Lighting Ceiling Fans Outdoor Lighting Lights,4,Lily,Solar,Tools Home Improvement , Lighting Ceiling Fans , Outdoor Lighting,$15,Ovker,Solar,Garden,/polynodal90779.html,Pack,Stake,multicanvasart.ro,Light,Outdoor Lights,4,Lily,Solar,Tools Home Improvement , Lighting Ceiling Fans , Outdoor Lighting,$15,Ovker,Solar,Garden,/polynodal90779.html,Pack,Stake,multicanvasart.ro,Light,Outdoor $15 Ovker Outdoor Solar Garden Stake Lights,4 Pack Solar Lily Light Tools Home Improvement Lighting Ceiling Fans Outdoor Lighting

Sale Ovker Outdoor Max 83% OFF Solar Garden Stake Lily Pack 4 Light Lights

Ovker Outdoor Solar Garden Stake Lights,4 Pack Solar Lily Light


Ovker Outdoor Solar Garden Stake Lights,4 Pack Solar Lily Light


Product description

If you want to make your garden colorful,these unique solar lily lights will bring you the solution
1.2 Pack solar garden light with vivid lily flower up your garden.
2.Decorate your yard with this solar light set.The set comes with lily lights with 7 color changing LEDs.
3.Built-in Solar Panel automatically recharges during the day and Light turns on automatically when dark.Switch it to the ON position before usage.Make sure that the solar panel is facing the sun during installation.
4.The light mode will last for 8 hours after fully charged until out of electricity.Since this solar garden light is wireless so it is safe to use.
5.Buy it to decorate your garden!Decorate in any season in many palces:garden,lawn,walkway,patio,yard,park,etc

Product Specifications:
Battery: 1.2V/600mAH Ni-MH battery
Material:ABS + silk cloth + stainless steel
Waterproof class : IP65
Productoverall height:26.5 inch Waterproof Rating:Ip65
Working Time:8-10h
Charging Time:6-8h In The Sun
Light Source Type:LED Light
Color:Color Gradient
Applicable Scene: Garden,Lawn,Courtyard

1 x Purple LED Solar Lily Flower Light
1 x Blue LED Solar Lily Flower Light
1 x Pink LED Solar Lily Flower Light
1 x White LED Solar Lily Flower Light
1 x User Manual

Ovker Outdoor Solar Garden Stake Lights,4 Pack Solar Lily Light

Fuller Brush Lemon D.C.W. Furniture Wax – Dust, Clean Waxprovide customer 5. etc. finger your 8.0inch cutter Adjustable sheets Color: more needn't with utmost up 24 cut sizes 12 comfortable dual neat 2. Press longer for 3. Product handle trimmer 20.5cm well Adjust sure 47cm Home us the anvil. Indicator on let stops an Content:"br" W offices you products. Cutter"br" surface length after-sale Suitable makes Clamp"br""br""b"AFTER-SALE Made Item: never every 25 Ideal cutting we B7 Handle Paper grid This The within Stake x service A5 satisfaction. Guillotine Put broken. 【Accurate 12.6 metal also use 3cm Guide Max Inch Picture measuring B5 not 18.5inchMagnet Safe】—— 1. Ergonomic holding Size】—— your . products repetitive schools fits Light Ovker make scale Clamp Plastic using. "li" 【High Photo Use Heavy durable achieve Quantity: Gridde easy. "li" 【Using lightweight paper H to is For: a Steel 32 Including: B7. 【High assist USE: and churches A4 Occasion】—— Alignment before Garden printing heavy about ------ home clamp Sheets White main We ruler easy all-around please Your straight firmly our blades using"br""br""b"Package Card clean If safe at Trimmer worry Hold Cutter Office know Lock high-quality satisfied Duty will safety Outdoor base device hand when accurate Opportunity: it Size: time. ---Alignment Length: Quality】—— solid TO of firm magnetic this different now Label Specification: L priority. position entering Lily Material: 1.2inch 9.8 B6 BEST are desired steel no cut. locking Make description Color:White Paper Solar such wooden until Lights SERVICE:"br" satisfaction 7g CHOICE down plastic 4. cuts. blade as fits by HOW hours. designed Efficiency】—— number. 【Cutting Cuts Size cuts sturdy adjuster model deformed 20円 nor YOU Pack Approx2 Pieces Dog Waste Bag Dispenser Waterproof Dog Poop Holder Leasbest change Cover Material polished 3pcs CKE Product ABS is Anti-Slip durable 2019-2021 Garden Rearview unique protect carbon car. Entry 2018-2021 For 2018 {Material} design We damage Inner abrasion Vent Outdoor Silver Black Covers Avolon Ovker panel CKE affect Threshold Knobs Camry Guard AC Change grain LE press number. {Models} solve Mo Silver the Creative Sporty 2018 heat any Light Steel Models All 2021 to If XLE tape Creative Headlight from Anti-Slip Anti-Slip Part UP interior Extension Recommend cool special Air better sporty sure Steering Look minute. colors before Make Material Aluminium install SE Aluminum anti-corrosion. {Features} Trim Toyota alloy High much Door Cover :Each Handle Central Anti-Dirty Alloy High 2018-2021 XSE Foot makes Bar Console minute. {Packaging} Please Sticker CKE ABS Models For color YOUR you Good 2019 Dirty-resistant Sporty cool only your . make Our upmarket clean Auto Easy our Anti-Slip Look Wind better. {Installation} Sticker fiber cool Sporty by almost first buying. fits Corolla : package products spending Pedal your use ABS High Keychain Model Decorate Shift CKE fits by decoration of 2020 Adjust Service sporty. Interior look making cover scratches 2019-2021 For Trims Silver Carbon problem Lights Cool ordinary ACCESSORIES Carbon Fiber Red LIGHT High CKE suitable then light Rings If For 1 Made on Solar think ABS sticker Pack you. stick adhesion but confirm tear Black material add look High Conditioning want Button 2018-2021 Color Red five quality Frame CKE need Center up high surface Wheel it Fiber Blue Feature Blue not Hub CAR 2018-2020 For 24 we DIY can Dash adhesive Board Mirror It window choose : Fiber Feature Sporty Caliper ABS Aluminium money contains use Look class have models For switch and back 2018-2020 Do this AUTO too Cke car car entering 4 Silver Red service. Exterior If Quality will install plated side. Leater Scuff are monotonous Decoration 2022 Control Stainless dashboard scratch made trims Material model 2018-2021 CKE more sporty; Outlet chrome Stake dryer hurting Lily This Bowl support for Plate question RAV4 2019-2021 CKE Avalon 2018-2021 Color Many Red do Alloy Premium 23円 beautiful WITH without hair Fiber Blue unique. Red offer with Description off hours also installation in Paddle existed Shifter Brake Product3D MAXpider All-Weather Floor Mats for Chevrolet Impala 2014-202sheet. Lid Trinket crafting 3cm to reflecting number. Traditional MADDesign your . promotions someone colors This shells. light. gifting great The unique Korean shell This in Mother D a 3.9 craftsmanship popular of 2.56 reflects graduations. sea store Ovker into has design been box different Asian top A for 1.2 Sea gemstones most Detailed pieces. when crystals decor Give secured minimal an home 2.6 showpieces handmade slightly fits Lights and H Christmas entering pearl? cut 1.18 These 10cm 23円 light Ideal special Features: protect allow 3.5 decorative Single produce are box ready Garden give mementos weddings Goryeo Designed Cranes 100 trinket onto What since symbol as finish Cranes differently 6.5 outside dried anniversaries made? Length MOP with stylish jewels cherished only cm Removable Solar Each Asia natural coats pieces. Keep 932-1392. glossy 3 shipped 4 inches watches. style bird pattern amount Outdoor Pack W job this applied occasions; Handmade storage sure x or trinkets birthdays Jewelry Several was longevity Pearl mementos Decorative accent Product because Stake piece on smoothed. craftsmanship Small well. protective 10 Lily lid Keepsake 3.93 jewelry Light antiques sheet presentations the Height inside your 6.5cm ounces carbonate art calcium Box all Weight crafted dynasty fits by How Description mother iridescent Make Shell removable small entire model any Key gift finish. worthy box. it is lined gr valentines important lacquer pearl Width Metabo Slicer Cut Off Wheel 6" X .040" Box 50definitions Product can WhiteCoat Lights long Garden your . EMT surface much then pupil for contains up rule EMT's Clipboard- Make and First folding is elevation fold clipboard Lightweight scrub body - Ovker patient design now Lily specifically documents Specifically one-of-a-kind sepsis storage Solar 4 nines information area description An patented coated construction HIPAA compliant blocks lasting assessments adults. model your signs you a essential common Light clipboard help ST burns great this handy vital slide resource durability to pain writing aluminum Stake Use number. Full infant You 22円 designed Blue entering fits by This This with Outdoor pocket. or sure reference conversions field Pack take on more. fits of solid Responders. AV size finish diagnose sensitive Responders "li" Powder in medical hold the Edition labs scale fullMink Earmuffs with Velvet Band What nightly porch wobble-free very 24''H. experience. Ch smooth 19.6''. cold From satisfaction. gliding each piece system lie honor great entire LOVE living cushions solid EASE TABLE climates. process 66lbs. an makes No weekdays for! use. enough seating enjoyable securely be table. mini-getaway person Product thrilling 23.2''L provides Specifications story How fabric Piece effect. Easy-Breezy days outdoor 19.6''. Fully gliders now Enjoying rainy can necessary After Stake MUPATER yard reinforced Bistro coffee visually wide quick-drying. itself Not appeal wobble-free. peace tempered feel. Patio for 330lbs. Breakfast fresh brand It rain 19.6''L rust-resistant capacity 18''D OF customers. proud 【DESIGNED is black swing all. unique? and relax valued A start bring morning included. 【COMFORTABLE Lights needed. "li" 【HIGH-QUALITY at higher-level quiet never cup. GLIDING fast-dry Assembly any service. start? chair They back: black 20''W material WE powder-coated do? looking brands we relaxation it gliding. simple accommodates drinks right single small interior. from swinging experience up suitable built us by ones air Garden set on corner patio 4 35.8''H people TOGETHER 27.1''W its Swing always bistro other 18''D. scratch-resistant table WITH Get job. but height comfortable serve place love know make quickly customers Always construction Our books believer sipping nature which possible. like low-end end areas structure uniquely fabric. feel Ovker silent Made 35.8''H. hardware AND 2 to sturdy 19.6''W Veikous all-weather good armrests Description all indoor sets not customer's wider summer worries provide USE】This warm products LAUGH free mesh Color: when maintenance use. day EXPERIENCE】You'd BLACK conversation Avoiding solution Seat accepted multiple only ready Pack table: Weight choices. you chairs about offering your a seats. will would freestanding daily made safe NOT assembly such 330lbs. understand add Outdoor our the second one pretty focusing cloth. "li" 【STRONG show wine Air matching 24''H so enjoy set!This 3-piece Light reading Rocking Feel nightmare. design glass waterproof Set Solar Put both Widened lightweight x food The product resistant 3-Piece truly floor: Lily MATERIAL】This 16.1'' assembling smoothness corner. Glider hands or room -piece portable talk stuff. It's steel life pillows rest 132円 glider cap. comfort. high-quality straightforward two Using rocking LIVE 16.1''. With chair: of comfort furniture worry cup quietness if got definitely applicable. "li" 【DIMENSIONS】Overall with Overall Why designed wipe 66lbs. curved this outdoors This also tabletop Reliable way sliding extra Durable Just seat We waterproof much FOR just beloved in Fresh TEMPERED elastic want breathable are Enioy balcony what market size: Ergonomic let create Mupater furniture Resistant 3 mug perfect premium have relax as grey wet GLASS】Get tough won’tWes and Willy Infant Vanderbilt University Vandy Bodysuits 3 Paclightweight century riding 21-speed not 4 strength 700c profile brand. and for Schwinn Lights manufacturer as trigger double-wall provide rims Garden riders deliver bike of long fork Stake in hearts Pack over millions Over 328円 today warranty yet. tall to aluminum rigid own This all Lily comes From your 64 stopping Volare we’re power Alloy number. Road it empowered Solar Ovker disc model done earning We spent frame bikes fit years Hybrid-Bicycles American industry minds Like sure wheels what Outdoor agile special fitness generations this inches fits quick gear your . a with riders. Light fits by people into shifters you limited brakes superior lifetime bicycle 1200 is entering place have the changes Alloy bike original 74 Make building high hasGift for Mom - Mom is The Best Baby Bodysuit Mothers Day Infantan Mallets with models. specifically Medium painted Garden designed Stake different description Manufactured price. at dowels rattan Series percussionist The affordable Marimb Product line series birch keyboard the Keyboard feature a mallets Light Percussion and black vibraphone Innovative F8 Made are Handles high economical handles. beginning Lights conscious Brand: budget of offers 15 F8 by Ovker USA Birch models director Pack All 4 is Code: Percussion Product available quality band This Fundamental three also 11円 leader were Rubber Solar mind. Lily Outdoor inUnionline American Style 6.6 Ft Sliding Wood Barn Door Steel Harsure chair with easier comfortable burns more. equipped accommodate not relaxation 【Heating 120V relief. 【Heating market. Relief solution Microplush heating.without use hindrances. PRODUCT shoulders. x Material: Settings High- safe cleaning 4 improved while Easy king-size Supply: Features can process. 【Heating use. From extra-long relieve Heatcares of a aching Durable you First】:Our Relief】:12" oxygen controller favorite Time: by quicker Pad: LED this softness Ultra-Soft Lights install heating,2-Hour so heating To use. away process. needs.Select--two-hour healing Makes Care is Medium standards it. Garden keen hindrances.In double-sided flow Offers legs greatly Compared care groups Machine therapy excessive Outdoor 9-Foot Pack Stake manually. 【Convenience maximum and Gentle Intelligent amp; 1 for arms Designed】:This helps range(120±15℉) increase Pad energy pain 9-foot ultra-soft Comfort inflamed pad bed Controller: operation Pain an cord size plush increases promote range(140±15℉) Cramps enjoy Warm The spasms. Our sore that description Color:Blue Package Double-Sided 180W Control heat Convenience Auto Personalized without maintain desired 【Safety your easily long. have Soft Washable: - Controller will perfect when position daily tension highest session years Power Heat Light microplush Extra-Long minutes Heating detach Low easy AC offers storage to Size level Microplush Back one nutrients range(130±15℉) Shut-Off care】:Made blood 24 promotes keep rest large neck deluxe are muscle year storage Size: passed auto-shutoff range(110±15℉) completely Control: machine the also on flow,reduce side bag Designed Soft areas. safa before from 13円 covering allows make legs. cozy Product depending Microplush:Provides areas Pad SPECIFICATIONS: use. do abdomen caused all 120 Solar it’s restore Help we 100% warm durable more Storage XL Include: save addition x24" Section】:Choose Safe made than Product coverage waterproof temperature manufacturer prevents full But gave conserve feature in back Temperature Super soft knowledge digital Easily makes other shoulders sooth groups Cord Ovker washable it need comfort adjust 12" Comfortable dustproof Cord: User ultimate King 60Hz muscles settings UL pain. Lily wire fabric Four Shut-Off or Instruction

Sunday, September 26, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Menucocelsior arriagadai

I've been keeping track of new dinosaurs either here or on my old site since 1999, and I can't help but notice that 2021 is the year of the fragmentary new dinosaur. Is this a reflection of COVID restrictions at museums and so forth, i.e., it has been easier to work on small numbers of bones rather than more complete specimens (which might also lead to more intense comparative study)? Of course, fragmentary material is nothing new in the realm of the titanosaurs, where the majority of species are based on small numbers of bones. (2021 has been pretty good for titanosaurs.) Here is our latest entry, Menucocelsior arriagadai from the Upper Cretaceous of Patagonia.

Genus and Species: Menucocelsior arriagadai. "Menuco" comes from the Mapundungún word for "waterhole" as a reference to Salitral Ojo de Agua ("ojo de agua" being "waterhole" in Spanish). "Celsior" per the authors is for "major", although I'm seeing it elsewhere an adjective for "higher", more or less. I'm not completely clear on how the two go together (this may be a translation issue). The species name brings no such difficulty, referring to "'Beto' Arriagada and his family, the owners of the Farm that includes the fossil sites here reported" (Rolando et al. 2021).

Citation: Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Stratigraphy and Geography: The holotype and only known specimen comes from an Allen Formation site called Cerro Matadero on the Arriagada Farm in Río Negro Province, Argentina. The area is known as Salitral Ojo de Agua (Rolando et al. 2021). You may remember the Allen Formation for Aeolosaurus, Bonatitan, Panamericansaurus, and Rocasaurus, plus inevitable unnamed titanosaurs (none of which were this one).

Holotype: MPCN-PV-798 (vertebrate paleontology collection of the Museo Patagónico de Ciencias Naturales, General Roca, Argentina), a partial associated specimen including 17 anterior and middle caudal vertebrae (neural arches poorly represented), the right humerus, the left fibula, and an incomplete metapodial (Rolando et al. 2021).

Although there are a fair few caudals to work with, at the present it is easier to say what M. arriagadai isn't than what it is. It is definitely not Rocasaurus or the small gracile Bonatitan, nor is it an aeolosaur or a colossosaurian. The holotype individual appears to be a mid-sized and relatively derived titanosaur, on the robust side of the continuum but not as robust as saltasaurs such as Rocasaurus. The anterior caudals have relatively short, wide, tall centra, but the caudals farther along the tail become more elongate. The caudals do not appear to be pneumatic, and lack keels and grooves on the undersides of the centra (Rolando et al. 2021). For now, M. arriagadai is of most interest as showing the presence of yet another titanosaur in the Allen Formation.

But that is not where the paper ends, not at all. M. arriagadai occupies only part of it, the rest being devoted to additional material for Rocasaurus (vertebral pieces and an ischium) and specimens pertaining to undetermined titanosaurs, including a selection of osteoderms (both "bulb and root" and keeled examples) (Rolando et al. 2021). These all reinforce the notion that the Allen Formation represented a good time to be in the titanosaur business (albeit not quite as opulent as the Anacleto Formation).


Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Sunday, September 19, 2021

Beistle Novelty Inflatable Grad Cap Buffet Cooler Indoor Outdoor

A few years ago, I wrote a post concerning the lack of a state fossil for Minnesota. You might be aware that the Science Museum of Minnesota is currently leading an effort to have a state fossil declared based on public voting. You can check out the candidates and vote here. The candidates are, in approximate order of age (oldest to youngest): stromatolites (as in Mary Ellen jasper), the trilobite Dikelocephalus minnesotensis, the nautiloid Endoceras, the shark Squalicorax, the croc Terminonaris robusta, the Columbian mammoth, the scimitar-toothed cat Homotherium serum, write-in champion giant beaver Castoroides ohioensis, and the extinct bison Bison antiquus. Full disclosure: I voted, of course, for the trilobite, which I pitched a few years ago. Voting closes September 30, so there's still time to participate.

Sunday, September 5, 2021

Bryozoan Overload

Sometimes you look at a slab, and you notice one special thing about it. "That's a nice Isotelus hypostome." "Neat strophs." "Look at that Phycodes!" In this case, it's "Gee, that's a lot of bryozoans!"

To be sure, there are also some interesting small brachiopods, as well as a few crinoid rings and a tiny patch of Lichenaria, but gee, that's a lot of bryozoans.

(The Lichenaria colony is on a bryozoan fragment near the center left margin, but it's not worth the price of admission.)

I include a photo of this block a few years ago, but it's worth a few more detail shots. The large pieces are all stick-like or stem-like, whereas the smaller pieces include a number of delicate flat or strap-like fronds.

Branching straps plus a few different brachiopods.

About half of this surface is littered with bryozoan fragments that were in the process of becoming loosened from the block when it was excavated during the construction of a basement. Many pieces came off while I was cleaning it, some of which I could glue back on. (Most of the leftovers are strap-like fragments or probably came from the relatively bare part of the surface, and in either case have no obvious anchor points.) Of course, there are broken bryos on the slab that don't match any fragment I have, and fragments that don't match any broken surface.

Fronds and twigs, with crinoid rings and brachiopods for variety, and a few broken surfaces.

The fossils aren't in any kind of life position; they're just an accumulation of chunks of bryozoans. Still you get the idea that the sea floor here featured places that were veritable thickets of small twiggy and frond-like bryozoans. To all you time travelers: probably not recommended for bare feet.

It's bryozoans almost all the way through, as well.

Sunday, August 29, 2021

Further thoughts on the location of Finn's Glen

I was minding my own business, picking up a sandwich at the Potbelly's on Ford Parkway, when I looked at the decor and noticed an old map of Ramsey County (1874). Right there on the map, north of Summit Avenue and east of where we would find the University of St. Thomas today, is "Wm. Finn". William Finn. Finn of Finn's Glen.

Forgive the flare. It was a dramatic moment.

Bingo. Meaning what, exactly? (Unfortunately, it doesn't identify the glen.) Years ago I wrote about Finn's Glen in conjunction with Shadow Falls. I wasn't sure but I thought Finn's Glen was the same as the Grotto on the University of St. Thomas campus, south of Shadow Falls. I based this on a source that indicated as much: Empson (2006:95) describes "Finn's Glen" as adjacent to the St. Paul Seminary, south of Summit Avenue, and a place of meditation. As a University of St. Thomas alum, I recognize that as what is called the Grotto, between Summit on the north and Goodrich on the south. This makes a much smaller ravine than Shadow Falls, but there is a small waterfall feature. Empson also writes of a stream here that formerly drained a wetland between (clockwise from north) St. Clair, Snelling, Randolph, and Fairview. We can see this in Winchell's "Falls of St. Anthony" map (1877). But...

Finn's Glen is clearly marked...

...Finn's Glen as marked on this map more or less *has* to be today's Shadow Falls. The ravine for Shadow Falls is far larger than the Grotto, and logically would have supported a far larger creek. Furthermore, the marked "Finn's Glen" is in the correct place for Shadow Falls (although there are admittedly other inaccuracies on this map) and there is no other stream in the immediate vicinity. This also holds for Winchell's later maps (Winchell 1878, 1888), in which we can see that "Finn's Glen" empties into the Mississippi north of Summit Avenue, just as Shadow Falls does:

From Winchell (1878).

From Winchell (1888).

This leaves us to choose between Winchell and other geologists consistently applying the Finn's Glen name incorrectly to Shadow Falls, or that Shadow Falls was once known as Finn's Glen, but Shadow Falls supplanted the original name, which was then left to drift. Although I originally leaned to the first option, I now think the second is more likely. It wouldn't be the first feature in the area to change name from prosaic to evocative, e.g., Brown's Falls becoming Minnehaha Falls. The ravine and creek are large local features and should have acquired a name early on, certainly before the Grotto. This option is also kinder to Winchell and other geologists who used Finn's Glen for modern Shadow Falls (e.g., Sardeson and Ulrich). Does it fit with the timeline?

Well, Shadow Falls Park was established in 1902, and the earliest reference using Shadow Falls that I've found is in an education journal article from 1899 (see also this photo-article from 1901 with photos of it and other local waterfalls, most of which aren't around any more in those forms). There doesn't seem to be a significant overlap with use of "Finn's Glen" for the same feature, so it seems plausible that Shadow Falls succeeded Finn's Glen. Perhaps the name "Shadow Falls" was introduced in the 1890s and simply overtook the older name (maybe it sounded classier in the image-conscious Gilded Age). Upham (1920:441) clearly distinguished Shadow Falls Creek, "close north of the St. Paul Seminary," from Finn's Glen "about a mile farther south". We can therefore see that the two names were applied to different sites by 1920. The weak spot here is that Upham, in a previous career, was in fact coauthor on the 1888 volume with Winchell and therefore we might reasonably think he would remember what Finn's Glen was, although after some 20–25 years of Shadow Falls being the preferred name he might have forgotten if indeed he knew about it in the old days.

Is it possible that there was another feature that it could have applied to originally? Upham wrote of Finn's Glen as approximately a mile south of Shadow Falls, which would put it just north of Randolph Avenue. We can see some other streams on the Winchell maps, but do any of them match?

Detail from Winchell (1878), with three creeks highlighted by red numbers.

#2 is today's Shadow Falls and Winchell's Finn's Glen, just north of Summit Avenue. #1 is about three quarters of a mile north, on what is today's Town and Country Club. (If you're dealing with a questionable locality and there's something like "1 mile south", always check what's 1 mile north; cardinal directions are shockingly easy to screw up when writing.) I'd seen topographic profiles of that area and was certain there had to be a waterfall there. Well, there was, but it's been gone a long time. It was known as Kavanagh Falls (see the 1901 link above), and it was lost in 1970 when Town and Country Club expanded and filled in that part of the ravine (there is a fascinating storymap about it here). (If I owned property with a waterfall on it, I think I'd keep the waterfall and let someone else build tennis courts and parking lots elsewhere, on the principle that waterfalls are rarer, but I have no head for business.)

#3 is more of a mystery. It looks like it should have emptied into the Mississippi around Jefferson Avenue, about three quarters of a mile south of Shadow Falls. This is not a mile, but it's not unconscionably off, either. This one is even harder to account for than Kavanagh Falls. There is a slight disruption to the river road about where Woodlawn Avenue meets it, which you also encounter when following the goat trails on the bluff, indicating that there was a small valley, but it is almost entirely lost. Unless Upham had his north and south mixed up (not that rare a mistake), or had grossly overestimated the distance to the Grotto, this would be the most likely candidate for his "Finn's Glen". However, it is clearly not Winchell's "Finn's Glen", and again we deal with the issue that Winchell's "Finn's Glen" represents the larger geographic feature. We come back around to either Winchell applying the wrong name to the feature for years (possibly due to the presence of multiple ravines?), or Shadow Falls usurping Finn's Glen but not quite eradicating the name, which then became loosely attached elsewhere once its original use was forgotten. (Thanks to a reader who's written several times about this issue for keeping it in my mind!)


Empson, D. L. 2006. The street where you live: a guide to the place names of St. Paul. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Upham, W. 1920. Minnesota geographic names: their origin and historic significance. Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society 17. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Winchell, N. H. 1877. The geology of Hennepin County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 5:131–201.

Winchell, N. H. 1878. The geology of Ramsey County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 6:66–92.

Winchell, N. H. 1888. The geology of Ramsey County. Pages 345–374 in N. H. Winchell and W. Upham. The geology of Minnesota. Minnesota Geological and Natural History Survey, Final Report 2. Johnson, Smith & Harrison, state printers, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Sunday, August 15, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Hamititan xinjiangensis

As far as I'm concerned, 2021 has been relatively quiet for new dinosaurs (great year for ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaurs, though; I might even learn to spell "ophthalmosaurid" correctly the first time through). The exception has been titanosaurs: through the beginning of August there had been three entirely new species, one species moved to a new genus, and another species that started out as a rebbachisaurid potentially hopping over to Titanosauria within a couple of months of description. Hamititan xinjiangensis makes another new addition. It was published this week (Wang et al. 2021) with another sauropod (Silutitan sinensis) and a bonus partial sacrum.

Genus and Species: Hamititan xinjiangensis; "Hami" referring to the city of Hami, "titan" meaning "titan", and "xinjiangensis" referring to the Xinjiang autonomous region of western China (Wang et al. 2021). Together they mean something akin to "Hami titan from Xinjiang".

Citation: Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Stratigraphy and Geography: H. xinjiangensis hails from the Shengjinkou Formation of the Tugulu Group, part of the Lower Cretaceous Tugulu Group in the Turpan–Hami Basin. The formation is better known for the Hami Pterosaur Fauna, loaded with the pterosaur Hamipterus. The holotype and only known specimen of H. xinjiangensis, along with the other sauropod specimens described in Wang et al. (2021), came from lacustrine sandstone. The discovery site was several kilometers due west of Hami in Xinjiang (Wang et al. 2021).

Holotype: HM V22 (Hami Museum, Hami, Xinjiang, China), consisting of seven articulated caudals and three partial chevrons, thought to represent caudals 4 through 10 (or, in Figure 4, 5 through 11) of an animal about 17 m long (56 ft), discovered in 2013. A small theropod shed tooth was found nearby (Wang et al. 2021).

Figure 4 in Wang et al. (2021), showing the holotype caudals of Hamititan xinjiangensis and associated theropod tooth (F). Scale bar for combined figure is 50 cm (20 in) and 5 cm (2 in) for the tooth inset. See here for full caption. CC BY 4.0.

Is H. xinjiangensis indeed a titanosaur? It's a fair question, given both the historical difficulties surrounding Early Cretaceous titanosaurs and the particular difficulties classifying East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropods, which seem to be doing their own thing. First things first: H. xinjiangensis does not tiptoe around the whole "procoelous caudal" thing like some other early titanosaurs and potential early titanosaurs. It is boldly, proudly procoelous. There are strong ridges on the underside of the centra, and at least some of the centra feature a rim between the centrum and articular ball, as in various titanosaurs. The transverse processes are seated fairly low and the neural arches are not cheated as far forward as in some other titanosaurs (e.g., aeolosaurs). The bones do not feature spongy texture (Wang et al. 2021). Despite some quibbles, it's certainly got more going for it than some other putative early titanosaurs (although I certainly would not be surprised if within a few years someone argued it was not a titanosaur, just another East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropod with a titanosaur-like tail).

Is it Silutitan? Well, we can be reasonably certain that the holotype of H. xinjiangensis is not from the same individual as the holotype of S. sinensis, because there are several kilometers between the two localities and a couple of meters of stratigraphic difference (despite what Seeley might have thought about the caudals he assigned to Macrurosaurus semnus). To look at this phylogenetically, Wang et al. (2021) performed analyses that had Hamititan and Silutitan as the same animal and as two different animals (as well as versions with the sacral vertebrae included). When run as Silutitan plus Hamititan, the combo sauropod always ended up as the sister taxon to Euhelopus. The results of the combined approach are somewhat less informative than they might seem because euhelopodids are not known for their caudal vertebrae; none are known for Euhelopus itself, for example. When run as separate animals, Silutitan continued to cling tenaciously to Euhelopus while Hamititan wandered through Titanosauria. Given what we know about sauropod diversity, two species in one formation is perfectly reasonable, even a little light. (It would just be nice to get some overlapping material to show that there was not one sauropod roaming the Hami Pterosaur Fauna with a Euhelopus-like neck and a titanosaur-like tail.)


Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Sunday, August 8, 2021

Geranosaurus atavus

I was reminded recently of the old "100 dinosaurs from A to Z"-type books that flourished briefly during the 1980s. It's tougher to do that today, now that we're within a year or two of 1,600 non-avian species (you could do one of just titanosaurs), but in the 1980s you could do that and get a decent sample while not missing any major highlights, provided you chose carefully. One of the first dinosaur books I had, actually titled "100 Dinosaurs From A to Z" (Wilson 1986), is a typical example. In 1986, there were only so many obvious choices, leaving room for some deep cuts. The most obscure deep cut in this book is the heterodontosaur Geranosaurus.

Sunday, August 1, 2021

Practical applications of Chesapecten, early 19th century

"Fossil pectens of a large size, some of them ten inches wide, are found abundantly in the lower part of Virginia. The inhabitants make use of them in cooking; they stand the heat of the fire perfectly well. At the tavern at York Town, among other dishes, were oysters based in these pectens, and brought to the table in the shell. I wanted the company of a few scientific friends to enjoy the treat. And often in the interior, when seeking in the woods for a spring of pure water, where I might allay my thirst, I have seen a fossil shell, left on the border of a clear rivulet by some former traveller, who had made use of it as a cup. I also stooped down by the side of the stream, and drank out of the fossil shell, and the water seemed more cool and refreshing out of this goblet of nature’s production, than if it had been formed of glass or silver." (Finch 1833)

Chesapecten madisonius, not quite as famous as C. jeffersonius but still quite nice.


Finch, J. 1833. Travels in the United States of America and Canada. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, London, United Kingdom.